Nigerian Academy of Management Journal <p><em>The Academy of Management Journal</em>, the official journal of the Academy was established to provide a credible forum for the development and propagation of management theory and practice. Every article sent for publication in the journal is subjected to peer review to determine its suitability. The Journal publishes scholarly articles which are original in nature, make significant contribution to the theory and/or practice of management and have not been published elsewhere.</p> The Academy of Management Nigeria en-US Nigerian Academy of Management Journal 2006-4667 Triple-Loop Organizational Learning and Workers’ Innovative Behaviour: A Response Mechanism for Pandemic Induced Work Disruptions <p><em>This paper examined the relationship between the triple-loop organizational learning typology and worker’s innovative behaviour in a pandemic induced work disruption. </em><em>The paper is a conceptual review paper, with the three components of theoretical review, conceptual review and empirical review undertaken to arrive at a deductive proposition that</em><em>with the right </em><em>learning context of an organization represented by the triple-loop learning model, organizational members’ innovative behaviour will be enhanced to boost organizational survival and success in the face of the disruption posed by the COVID-19 pandemic on work organizations.</em></p> Soye Peniel Asawo E. H. Ogbonda Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 1 12 Impact of Government Enterprise and Empowerment Programme on Standard of Living in Rivers State of Nigeria <p><em>The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of government enterprise and empowerment programme (GEEP) on standard of living. In achieving this objective, a critical review of the extant literature was made with certain hypothetical statements. In this study government enterprise and empowerment programme (GEEP) was operationalized as market moni, trader moni, and farmer moni. The population of the study comprises ninety six thousand four hundred and thirteen (96,413) with a sample size of three hundred and ninety eight (398) beneficiaries. The primary source of data collection was employed in this study using the questionnaire designed in five-point Likert scale. Prior to its administration, the questionnaire was assessed for validity and reliability and the result was within the threshold. The statistical method of data analysis used in this study is the Pearson Product Moment Co-efficient of Correlation (PPMCC). Based on the findings of this study, and the conclusion drawn there from, it is recommended that the government should give serious attention to market moni, trader moni, and farmer moni as the various forms of government enterprise and empowerment schemes as means of improving the standard of living of the people. More so, the implementation of these schemes should be devoid of politics.</em></p> Lucy Cletus Akenbor Obeki Stephen Obeki Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 13 21 Pandemic Disruptions and the Imperatives of Virtual Work Channels <p><em>The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting stay-at-home orders have led to significant changes in the way people work. One of these changes involves increased use of virtual work channels as a means of communicating or holding work meetings. Today’s organizations have to remain alert and adaptive to unforeseen events, such as external crises, which create increased uncertainty among their workforce and pose immediate threats to the organizations’ performance and viability. With the recent COVID-19 pandemic, organizations suddenly have to navigate the unprecedented and thereby find new solutions to challenges arising across many areas of their operations. Educational institutions, offices, factories and markets were closed as a result of the lockdown measures imposed by several governments. To ensure that business operations continued, a work from home policy was implemented by most organizations. This enabled everyone do their work while maintaining social distancing. Despite the changes, this pandemic is teaching the organizations as well as their business managers a lot of lessons. The present, extreme cases of requisite physical distancing need not imply equivalent increases in psychological distance, and also offer firms some insight into the unanticipated benefits of a virtual workforce – a type of workforce that, quite possibly, will influence the ‘new normal’ of the post-COVID world. The purpose of this paper to examine the imperatives of virtual work channels as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic disruptions. </em></p> Anthonia E. Bestman Happiness Nwanyi Elekwachi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 22 29 Decommissioning Costs in Oil and Gas Operations in Nigeria: Theoretical Reflection <p><em>This study entails a theoretical review of issues arising on decommissioning cost in oil and gas operations in Nigeria. In Nigeria, t</em><em>he PIA (2021) builds on the existing framework of the Petroleum Act, which mandates the implementation of decommissioning programme in oil and gas industry.</em><em> There are however concerns that indigenous oil and gas companies may not be able to discharge their decommissioning obligation, given the enormous cost involved. It is upon this premise that this paper tends to address some issues arising from the decommissioning costs of oil facility in Nigeria, and these issues include accounting for decommissioning cost, financing decommissioning programme, strategies for minimizing decommissioning cost, and tax implications of decommissioning cost. A critical review of the extant literature was made. In accounting for decommissioning cost, the accounting standards to apply are IAS 16 and IAS 37. To secure decommissioning cost, a decommissioning fund must be maintained by the company in the form of sinking fund. Since decommissioning cost is usually huge, companies must it cost using several strategies such as fit-for-purpose designs and technologies, factory model, innovative contracting model, building decommissioning teams, importing decommissioning skills and resources, excellent decommissioning planning and execution, cluster decommissioning programme, divestment of oil facility, and potential for reusing existing systems and structures. </em><em>According to the Nigerian tax law, contribution to decommissioning fund and actual decommissioning cost are allowable for tax purpose whereas annual provision for decommissioning cost is a non-allowable expense.</em></p> Cletus O. Akenbor ThankGod Obutor Imo Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 30 38 Digital Business Process and Business Transformation of Banks in Owerri <p><em>Many businesses in Nigeria are still held back by their traditional ways of engaging business processes in a business world evolving with artificial intelligence. The business leader’s ways of doing business makes it difficult to grow new business and not effectively managing business process transition. The major objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between digital business process and business transformation, while the specific objective is to examine the relationship between the artificial intelligence and business process reengineering. The study was </em><em>anchored on Knowledge-based theory of the firm.</em><em> Correlation survey design was employed for the study so as to show the type of relationship between the dependent and independent variables. </em><em>The population of the study is made up of the management and operations staff of the selected banks (Access Bank and Fidelity Bank Owerri) The total sample size of 120 was adopted. The validity of the instrument was performed on the surface level using face validity while Cronbach’s Alpha estimate was used to measure the reliability of the questionnaire with the aid of SPSS version 23 Again. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used in analyzing the data with the aid of Software Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v.23). The study revealed that there is significant relationship between Artificial Intelligence (Digital leadership) and Business process re-engineering (work flow design). The study recommended that business organizations should deem it fit that their leaders are digitally compliant to utilize available IT innovations or knowledge to cause changes that can help the organization attain its set objective. Also, a synergy should be created among the business elements for creating reengineering to get the best and utmost result</em>.</p> Faith Onwuchekwa Eze A. Emele Onyinye Maria-Regina Eneh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 39 49 Enterprise System, Covid-19 and Organisational Change Management: A Case Study of Public Universities in Rivers State <p><em>This paper aims at identifying the causes, effects and probable solutions to the organisational change management failure brought about by the external impact of covid-19 in public universities in Rivers State. While public universities in Rivers state were slowly building their way to an entire Enterprise Resource Planning system (ERP), the sudden pandemic impact meant a sudden upscale to achieve its essential functions. A case study method was employed by interviewing 15 academic staff from the three public universities in Rivers state. The transcripts from the interviews were anaysed using Nvivo 10.0 and compared to models on organisational change. This paper used organisational metaphors to identify how the university works. A review of the metaphor established that the university is predominately a political organisation; hence models with a political undertone were used to identify causes and proffer solutions. Among the answers were the importance of informal political groups, forming a coalition, controlling the agenda, keeping a long-term view by rethinking and redesign, and being reactive as situations develop.</em></p> Hanachor Ezebunwo Okwu Okechukwu Omah Precious Agwuma Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 50 56 Knowledge Investment and Academic Staff Performance of Nigeria Tertiary Institutions: Implication for Post Covid-19 <p><em>The purpose of this research was to empirically examine the relationship between knowledge investment and academic staff perfomance of Nigeria tertiary institutions with emphasis on post Covid-19 effect. The study applied cross sectional survey design in structured questionnaire to collect data from 400 lecturers of public universities in Rivers. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient tool was employed with the help of SPSS Version 21.0, to statistically analyzing data obtained from the field. Results revealed that knowledge investment has a positive and significant relationship with academic staff perfomance, however, Covid-19 moderates the extent of relationship between both variables by reducing the impact of the former on the latter. Consequently, the research concludes that though investment in knowledge-based infrastructures by tertiary institutions is a crucial tool in improving productivity of academic staff, however, consequences of the pandemic has affected effective learning and staff perfomance. The research recommends that </em><em>Government and key stakeholders should focus more on investing in knowledge-based systems that equip academic staff in discharging their duties professionally, as this research has proven the possibility of enhancing academic staff performance through this means. </em></p> Obabuike Ikeni Nkpurukwe John Azuma Giwa Arumdeben Andy Fred Wali Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 57 65 An Evaluation of the Effect of Children of School Age Engagement in Stone Mining and Quarry Activities on Child Education <h1><em>The purpose of this study is to evaluate the incidence of child engagement in paid labour with special interest in mining and quarrying activities and the extent it affects child education. The survey method of research was adopted with an oral interview as a major instrument for data collection. The study confirms significant incidents of child labour in Nigeria. It further found five major implications of engaging children of school age in mining/quarrying activities which include absenteeism, poor academic performance, high rate of repetition, high dropout rate, reduced children productivity, and future earnings' capacity. The study discovered that orphanage, poverty, social norms and wrong perception, peer influence, financing of educational and personal needs, and lack of adequate enforcement by the government agencies are the major causes. Even though this study revealed that several efforts have been made at different levels yet much-needed to be done. Therefore, study recommends what should be done to eliminate the incidence of child labour and out- of- school children. The study recommends&nbsp;&nbsp; among others that the government and other stakeholders should re-double their efforts to eliminate all forms of child labor and create incentives that will support child education. The study therefore emphasizes that engaging children on paid work affect their education and future negatively.</em></h1> Hyginus Emeka Nwosu Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 66 82 Business Process Reengineering and Organisational Sustainability of Oil and Gas Firms in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria <p><em>The study investigated the nexus between business process reengineering (dimensioned by process improvement and information technology) and organisational sustainability (measured by enviromental sustainability) of oil and gas firms in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. The baseline theories that underpin the study are the institutional theory and the upper echelon theory. The overriding philosophical bearing of the study is positivism, which assumes an ontological posture of realism. Consequently, a cross sectional survey design was adopted and the questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. The target population for this study, consists of 187 midstream oil &amp; gas firms (oil servicing) in Port Harcourt, as contained in the Yellow Book of the Rivers State Ministry of Commerce, while the accessible population&nbsp; consists of 328 management staff of 82 midstream oil &amp; gas firms in Port Harcourt. The investigation used the Krejcie and Morgan's (1970) formula to determine the sample size of 177 and 20% adjustment was made to accommodate attrition and outliers, bringing the adjusted sample size to 212 respondents. The purposive sampling technique was adopted and the reliability statistics all exceeded the 0.7 cronbach’s alpha threshold. Data obtained from 204 duly completed and usuable copies of the instrument were analyzed, and the Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient was deployed to test hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The analysis revealed that while process improvement leads to enviromental sustainability,&nbsp; information technology does not have a linear bearing with enviromental sustainability. The study recommends that managers of midstream oil and gas firms in Port Harcourt should identify and prioritize improvement potentials of the work, to achieve process improvement which will lead to business process reengineering. Furthermore, leaders of oil and gas firms should ensure that the selection, implementation, use, maintenance and improvement of technology solution is included in the organization’s strategic/service planning, as a means of staying updated with information technology.</em></p> Thomas C. Okoisama Prisca Chinenye Obiukwu Ejike Kenneth Agbiriogu Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 83 97 Effect of Conditional Cash Transfer on the Welfare of the Vulnerable in Nigeria: Covid-19 Experience <p><em>This study examines how Conditional Cash Transfer programme of Federal Government affects the lives of vulnerable citizens in the country.&nbsp; The main objective of the study is to examine the effect of Conditional Cash Transfer on the welfare of the vulnerable in Nigeria. Structured questionnaire were distributed to the respondents in Anambra and Abia states. Three research hypotheses were tested using chi-square. However, a total of 140 questionnaire were administered to the respondents in the aforementioned two states, the result were analyzed and presented with the use of percentage and chi-square method.. Therefore, the study found that the welfare of the vulnerable in Nigeria has not been positively improved by the introduction of conditional cash transfer programme of the federal government; also, unavailability of adequate fund (cash) to be assessed by the vulnerable in Nigeria posed a lot of problem for indigents citizens, again, the conditional cash transfer fund provided by federal government are not equitably distributed to the majority of vulnerable people in Nigeria. The research therefore recommended that for conditional cash transfer scheme of federal government to be sustained, there have to be collective effort between, federal government, agency concerned and stakeholders. Also the government should financially empower the ministry/agency concerned.</em></p> Chitom Racheal John-Akamelu Ifeanyi Francis Osegbue Nkechi Francisca Onuzulike-Chukwuemeka Victoria Ogochukwu Obi-Nwosu Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 98 104 Financial Accounting Literacy and Growth of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) in Ondo State <p><em>Businesses collapse in recent times due to illiteracy of management and stakeholders on how to deal with the financial aspect of their activities. As a result, the study examined the effect of financial accounting literacy and growth of small and medium scale enterprises. The study adopted descriptive research design and obtained data from </em><em>structured questionnaire, the respondents targeted were Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Data were analyzed using percentages, frequencies, means and ANOVA. Thus, the study concluded that there is a significant relationship between financial accounting literacy and the growth of SMEs in Ondo State thereby having an influence on their growth and development as it is also essential for the survival and continuity of any SME. Based on the findings, the study recommends that the ministry or agency responsible for SMEs in the state should initiate accounting training programs for entrepreneurs running small businesses, since keeping proper accounts enhances profitability and growth of small scale enterprises, also, emphasis should be stressed on the teaching of basic accounting concepts and skills to all students so as to enhance their entrepreneurial skills in every sector.</em></p> Catherine Omoleye Gbemigun Wale Henry Agbaje Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 105 114 Corporate Governance and Organisational Performance of LAPO Micro-Finance Bank in Nigeria <p><em>The research looked at the link between corporate governance and the performance of the LAPO microfinance bank in Nigeria. This study adopted a survey research method to give questions to 144 LAPO microfinance bank employees in Edo State's Oredo and Egor Local Government Areas. The study's results were evaluated using the Cronbach Alpha test, which is an ordinary least square regression approach. The empirical results indicated that credit risk assessment has a negative and insignificant relationship with LAPO microfinance bank performance at a 5% level of significance, but capital sufficiency has a positive and significant relationship with LAPO microfinance bank performance. In order to preserve the organization's success, investors and shareholders need ensure that management maintains the capital adequacy ratio, according to the research. The capital adequacy ratio should be maintained by top-level management, investors, and shareholders, according to the study, in order for the company to continue to operate well. According to the study, other corporate governance variables (board expertise, audit committee diligence, board structure) that may contribute to microfinance institution success should be captured in future empirical work on corporate governance and organisational performance.</em></p> Omoyebagbe Rosaline Dania Omoyemwen Hope Igbinawan Dennis Onutomaha Akrawah Ehiabhi Andrew Tafamel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 115 121 The Changing Role of Technology in University Management in Era of Pandemic: The Mediating Role of Academic Staff of Universities in North Central Zone of Nigeria <p><em>The COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented crisis with momentous challenges for higher education institutions worldwide.</em><em> The unplanned closure of schools due to the pandemic left millions of students at all levels out of schools. </em><em>Academic leaders have been charged with restructuring their systems, ensuring instructional quality while operating with significantly diminished resources. </em><em>However, the use of technologies offered opportunities for educators and students to engage in remote pedagogical activities during the school closures. </em><em>With relatively little warning, personnel in educational organizations, abandoned face-to-face instruction and shifted rapidly to online learning. Educational managers were tasked with maintaining relationships and ensuring quality, while balancing student needs with their own personal safety. This paper reviews the relevant situation of the COVID-19 outbreak with focus on university education, the role of academics and their response to the pandemic, in the North Central Zone of Nigeria. This research uses an exploratory quantitative approach, supported by literature content analysis techniques. The data set for this study was collected after the resumption of lectures in 2021. We used SPSS to conduct a descriptive analysis and PLS-SEM to analyse data collected from 233 academic staff of four different universities in the North Central zone of Nigeria. These academics disclosed various challenges encountered in an attempt to adopt digital technology platform applications for online learning. These include: inadaptability and unfamiliarity of the new online learning environment, poor and inadequate infrastructures, students’ unpreparedness, lack of motivation, and personal health challenges related to stress and anxiety. It is recommended that university management should adopt those teaching initiatives that have proved to be effective during the remote learning phase and integrate them into the regular education system. It is quite critical and germane to empower academics, investing in the necessary skills development and capacity building to exploit the full potential of remote and blended learning.</em></p> Edwin S. Echu Sylvanus M. Itodo Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 122 134 Organizational Learning and Resilience: A Case of Family Businesses in Rivers State <p><em>This study ascertained the relationship between organizational learning and resilience of family owned businesses in Rivers State. A sample size of one hundred and eleven (111) was determined using the Taro Yamene from a population size of one hundred and fifty-four (154).&nbsp; Out of the one hundred and eleven (111) questionnaires that were distributed, eighty-one (81) were retrieved and used for the study. The Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient (Rho) was used to test the hypotheses with the aid of an SPSS statistical package. Findings from the study revealed that there is a significant relationship between organizational learning and resilience of family owned businesses in Rivers State.Based on the findings generated from this study, the following recommendations were made: (i) owners and managers should create a forum or training section were knowledge of the business can be shared amongst other entrepreneurs. This will help them build their knowledge on the business and further help them stand firm in unpredictable circumstances; (ii) it is important for family businesses to employ techniques that will help members to determine their core values, core purposes and envision the desired future of the business. </em></p> Njideka P. Oyekwelu Success Ota-Imade Joseph E. O. Oshi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 135 144 Impact of Product Quality on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty <p><em>The main aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of product quality on customer satisfaction and loyalty. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of the study was 264 staff of Adama Beverages Ltd. The data collected were analysed using linear regression analysis. </em>The entire population was used as sample size. Questionnaires were adapted to draw the information from the respondents. <em>The finding of the study revealed that </em><em>when it comes to customer satisfaction, product quality is a major determinant and that reduction in level of customer loyalty, might be due to variation in the firm’s product quality and the customers level of satisfaction as regard the product quality. It is recommended that since product quality happens to be one of the major determinants of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty and as such management of firms must establish an interactive metrics that will keep track of the level of their product quality based on the customer perceptions, as a fall or rise in product quality can either reduce or increase the level of customer satisfaction, which in turn can make the level of customer loyalty.&nbsp; </em></p> Ejika Sambo Ijuo Sunday Ukpata Mary M. Atiga John Fumba Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 145 155 Social and Environmental Impact on Financial Performance of Selected Listed Cement Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria <p><em>The question of the balance between corporate sustainability initiatives and profitability has been widely discussed. The problems facing today's managers were how to manage performance across sustainable dimensions so that the synergistic advantages of its execution approach may be derived. Conflicts between companies and their host communities arise because companies fail to comply with their duties to society.Hence, the study aim examines social and environmental impact on financial performance of selected listed manufacturing firms in Nigeria.The study adopted ex-post factoresearch design<strong>. </strong>The study looks at social and environmental impact on the financial performance of listed cement manufacturing firms in Nigeria for period from 2011 to 2020. The variables for the study are community relations, research and development and return on capital employed. Three (3) cement companies were used namely BUA cement plc, Dangote cement plc and Lafarge cement plc.Findings reveal that environmental disclosure especially R&amp;D disclosures has a significant effect on firm financial performance as these items show-up in the fixed effects regression with statistically significant p-values. Likewise, findings reveal that social disclosure especially Community relations disclosure has an insignificant effect on firm financial performance.&nbsp; The study concluded ha environmental disclosure impact firm financial performance in a significant way while social disclosure does not. It is therefore recommended that shareholders and the government should ensure compliance with environmental regulations, especially in the area of environmental disclosures as this helps the firms to be conscious of the environment where it belongs.</em></p> Oladeji E. Oladutire Olabode Olutola Aiyesan Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 156 163 Service Quality Automation and Customer Satisfaction of Deposit Money Banks <p><em>This study focused on service quality automation (SQA) and customer satisfaction of deposit money banks (DMBs) in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. 329 respondents were used for the study. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyse the data to bring out the F- statistics in each of the hypothesis. The findings revealed that consistency (accuracy, dependability and availability), queue management (prompt service and time saving), safety (security, privacy, trust, confidence), and quality service enjoyment (convenience, ease of use, usefulness, easy access and minimal cost) of DMBs automation all had positive effect on customer satisfaction. It was recommended that DMBs should ensure that bank automation transactions are accurate (correct statement of account) and dependable (no absence of network, ATM dispensing new note and not out of cash or order) at all times to customers, and these will ensure customers’ delight. Also, DMBs should provide fast automated for cash transfer and withdrawal; and ensure that no reduction in balance without payment in electronic banking transactions to customers in order to guarantee customers’ trust. Furthermore, they should provide customers with ease of use and easy accessibility on electronic banking transactions. Finally, DMBs should not impose excessive charges above government stipulated rates in electronic banking transactions on customers.</em></p> Joseph Amaechi Anyadighibe Nsobiari Festus Awara Bassey Benjamin Esu Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 164 174 Tactics for Integrating Sustainability: Basis for Corporate Governance and Nation Building <p><em>This paper explores the approaches for integrating sustainability as a basis for good corporate governance and nation building. Relevant content of literature was used by reviewing relevant journals, write-ups and other contributions posted on books and internet. Therefore, this paper aimed at structuring the literature on the tactics for integrating sustainability; and the basis for corporate governance and nation building; hence a conceptual analysis was employed in this paper. The conceptual framework is proposed to address the integration of sustainability management and accountability in Nigeria. Sustainability and corporate governance is one of the most important challenges of our time. Projects play a pivotal role in the realization of more sustainable business practices and the concept of sustainability has also been linked to accountability. This paper recommends, among others, the need for government to adopt a more practical approach to the promotion of accountability and good governance, a determined fight against corruption and unethical behaviour, proper management of resources, and commitment of more funds to the execution of capital&nbsp; projects&nbsp; that&nbsp; could&nbsp; positively&nbsp; affect the lives of people for improved standard of living. The study identified a positive relationship between sustainable growths at the firm level. Also, the study identified numerous challenges facing sustainability, corporate governance and nation building in Nigeria.</em></p> Blessing Chineme Okoro Wechi Ibekwe Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 175 186 Service Tangibles and Customer Satisfaction of Car Rental Companies <p><em>This study examined service tangibles and customer (passengers) satisfaction of car rental companies in Calabar Metropolis. Its main purpose was to determine the relationship between service tangible dimensions of car rental companies (appearance of personnel, cleanliness of vehicle and air-conditioning system) and customer (passengers) satisfaction in Calabar Metropolis. The cross sectional survey research design was adopted; and primary data was obtained from 228 customers (passengers) of car rental companies in Calabar Metropolis with the aid of a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics while hypotheses were tested using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation in the Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS 23). The findings of the study revealed that appearance of personnel, cleanliness of vehicle and air-conditioning system had significant positive relationships with customer (passengers’) satisfaction of car rental companies in Calabar Metropolis. It was concluded that there is a significant positive relationship between service tangibles and customer satisfaction of car rental companies in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State. And, the following recommendations were proffered that:&nbsp; car rental companies should pay close attention to the physical appearance of their personnel and ensure that they are always neat and presentable. Also, it is essential that they provide passengers with cars whose interiors and exteriors are clean; and well-functioning air-conditioning systems should be installed in their cars to provide comfort in order to enhance overall customer satisfaction</em>.</p> Nsobiari Festus Awara Joseph Amaechi Anyadighibe Butum U. Ofum Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 187 196 Globalization and Consumer Behaviour in Covid-19 Era: A Study of Evangel University Akaeze, Ebonyi State <p><em>This study focused on globalization and consumer behaviour in the covid-19 era: A study of Evangel University Akaeze, Ebonyi State. The objective was to determine the relationship between technology and consumer behaviour. The study is a descriptive survey research that is fact-finding in nature. The sources of data collection used in this research were primary and secondary data. The primary data was collected from a sample of 171 respondents using questionnaire. This was a four-point scale questionnaire. </em><em>The data collected for the study were analyzed using both descriptive (tables, mean, etc.) and inferential (correlation) statistics </em><em>and SPSS </em><em>to test the hypothesis. The hypothesis formulated was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The finding of the study was that </em><em>there is a significant (p&lt;0.05) relationship between technology and consumer behaviour. </em><em>Finally, it was recommended that </em><em>there is need for firms and organizations to understanding the key factors affecting the behaviour of consumers. The importance of the factors, the intensity of their effect and their relationship with consumers and globalization characteristics is crucial for firms' project team to improve its chances of making the right decisions.&nbsp; </em></p> Ebere Rejoice Okocha Okoro Agu Agu Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 17 2 197 204